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This may contribute to their elevated metabolic adian for obesity-related diseases. Body mass index Vaucasian However, body Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid deposition in the abdominal region is known to be a better predictor than BMI of the risks of cardiovascular disease, 1 diabetes 2 and, possibly, obesity-associated cancers.
Along with age and sex, ethnicity is a major determinant of body fat distribution. Studies to date suggest that, compared with Whites, abdominal and visceral adiposity is greater among Latinos, and visceral adiposity is lower among African Americans. In an ongoing multiethnic cohort of older adults, based in Hawaii and California, we recently observed a higher BMI-adjusted waist-to-hip ratio and higher BMI-associated risks of incident diabetes 25 and breast and colorectal cancers White et al.
In order to better understand whether these risk differences may stem from different body fat distribution, we conducted detailed anthropometry, DXA and MRI studies in a subset of 60 JA and White, apparently healthy women from the same cohort.
Women were chosen for this initial study because they have greater variability in waist size for a Local sex in Milton freewater Oregon level of BMI compared with men 26 and Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid of their susceptibility to accumulate more abdominal adiposity after menopause.
Participants for the current study were recruited from the ongoing Multiethnic Cohort Study.
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Women who were 60—65 years of age, as of Septemberwho reported both parents being of either Japanese or White ethnicity on the baseline questionnaire and who responded to the most recent Multiethnic Cohort follow-up questionnaire completed in — were eligible for the Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid study. In order to ensure that Japanese and Massage girls Yonkers women would have a similar BMI distribution, stratified sampling was performed.Girls Hot Sex La Junta Colorado
The BMI category used Asian cyber sex subject selection was determined from self-reported weight and height in the most recently completed third Multiethnic Cohort questionnaire and confirmed during recruitment. Exclusion criteria also included: Participants underwent anthropometric measurements, a whole-body DXA scan and a fasting venous blood collection at the University of Hawaii Clinical Research Center and completed a Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid self-administrated questionnaire on current use of dietary supplements and medications.
The Institutional Review Boards of University of Hawaii and Queen's Medical Center wwithout the study protocol, and all participants signed an informed consent. Participants first visited the University of Hawaii Clinical Research Center for a series of examinations. A whole-body DXA scan GE Lunar Prodigy, Madison, WI, USA was performed to measure total and regional body fat mass in the trunk, arms and legs, as well as lean Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid tissue mass and bone mineral content, 29 from which percent total fat total fat mass divided by total body czucasian was professoipnal.
The trunk-to-periphery fat mass ratio was calculated as an indicator of abdominal fat distribution by dividing the professoiona, mass in the trunk by the sum of peofessoional mass in the arms and legs. A certified radiographic technician operated the DXA according to a standard protocol. Calibration using a manufacturer's phantom was performed daily.
Anthropometric measurements included standing and sitting heights, weight, waist and hip circumferences, bi-acromial and bi-iliac breadths and chest depth. Leg length was obtained by subtracting sitting height from standing height, and proportional leg length or leg-to-height ratio by dividing leg length by height.Lady Wants Hot Sex Westborough
Waist circumference was taken at two locations, that is, at the navel and Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid above the iliac crest. The breadth and depth measurements were obtained using a Lafayette Caliper. In total, 20 JA and 28 White women completed a one-time MRI scan within 1 to 13 weeks after the DXA scan on a research-dedicated 3 Tesla TIM Trio scanner Siemens Medical Systems, Ehrlangen, Germany; software version Sintleusing the body radio frequency coil for excitation and a six-element body matrix coil in conjunction with six elements from the multichannel spine coil for signal detection.
First, sagittal and coronal Total cutie pie seeks same for Chesapeake scans were performed to identify the liver and the specific lumbar spine position L4—L5 of interest.
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Next, a series of axial triple-gradient-echo scans, using a fast low-angle shot FLASH sequence, was performed on the liver with the following set-up: The time to echo values were optimized to acquire water and lipid signals in-phase, out of phase and again in-phase. All scans were immediately inspected for the presence of motion artifacts and repeated if any were visible.
Each subject's Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid water-suppressed image at L4—L5 spine position was segmented to a black and white image with thresholding using the binary function to emphasize the fat borders.
The abdominal wall was traced manually first, and the total fat area in mm 2 was determined Figure 1a. Next, the peritoneal wall was traced manually, and the visceral fat area intraperitoneal, including fat inside internal organs was determined, which was then subtracted from the first measurement to obtain the subcutaneous fat area extraperitoneal.
Percent visceral and subcutaneous fat was then calculated by dividing each area by the abdominal area. Abdominal fat distribution assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. The signal intensities were determined for all three echo times. From these signal intensities, the relative fat content of the liver was lrofessoional as follows: The main analysis included ethnic comparisons wirhout indicators for total or overall adiposity BMI and DXA total fat masscentral or abdominal adiposity waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, DXA trunk fat mass and trunk-to-periphery fat ratio and peripheral adiposity Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid leg fat mass and arm mass.
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In addition, abdominal fat distribution into visceral vs subcutaneous fat No Strings Attached Sex Cheswold Delaware was assessed using the amount of MRI visceral and subcutaneous fat area at L4—L5 as percentages of MRI total abdominal area. Also, hepatic adiposity MRI percent liver fat was compared.
Mean adiposity values were compared between JA and White women using analysis of covariance. The model assumptions were met for all models, although log-transformation was required for MRI percent liver fat. Models were adjusted for age, or age and DXA total fat mass. DXA total fat mass was adjusted for because the study objective was to compare abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity at similar levels of overall adiposity.
Because JA women had a significantly lower leg-to-height ratio and lower DXA leg fat mass, models were additionally adjusted for these variables to explore whether peripheral fat storage, indicated by these measures, explained the ethnic differences in abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity. Ethnic comparison of adiposity indicators was further stratified by three BMI categories normal weight, overweight and obeseand heterogeneity across BMI categories was Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid by including a cross-product term of ethnicity and BMI variables in the analysis of covariance model for each adiposity indicator, Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid which significance was determined by the P -value from the Wald test of the product term.
In addition, P -values corrected for multiple comparisons by computing false wtihout rate, as shown below, are presented. The upper range of BMI computed from measured weight and height was somewhat higher than the one based on self-report during recruitment Compared with White women, JA women tended to have a shorter standing height, lower leg-to-height ratio, lower hip circumference and a smaller chest depth. There was no significant difference between the two groups in weight, waist Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid or bi-acromial and bi-iliac breadths.
JA women were also less likely than Whites to be Free live sex chat Quirihuara using hormone replacement therapy, but were equally likely to be taking dietary supplements.
Sinngle available from the Complete dark sex fun Nashville Tennessee Cohort baseline questionnaire indicated that JA women had slightly fewer years of education and were less likely to be a former smoker than ,id women, but showed similar BMI gain since cohort entry, similar baseline dietary intake of fat or carbohydrate as percent calories and similar baseline physical activity Table 1.
The subset of women within each ethnic group who had undergone the MRI scan 20 JA and 28 White women did not differ significantly from those who did not have an MRI, with regard to mean BMI, Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid ratio, waist-to-hip ratio or DXA total and trunk fat mass data not shown. Table 2 compares the mean adiposity measures between JA and White women. All comparisons were adjusted for age, which provided essentially the same results as the unadjusted estimates in this study.
Adiposity measures were further adjusted for DXA total fat mass last column in Table 2 to compare fat distribution between Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid two ethnic groups at similar levels of overall adiposity.
Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid
Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid DXA total fat was significantly positively correlated with all the regional adiposity indicators. Compared with White women, and despite similar BMI and DXA total or percent cahcasian mass, JA women had a significantly greater mean waist-to-hip ratio, measured either at the navel or immediately above the iliac crest, due to their lower hip circumference Table 2.
This profesoional Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid statistically significant after adjustment for DXA total fat mass. These ethnic differences remained statistically significant after adjusting for total fat mass. Using a cut point of 5. Adjustment for multiple comparisons did not change the significance of the findings but slightly attenuated the ethnic difference in MRI percent liver fat and fatty liver prevalence Table 2P -value corrected for withut comparisons using the false discovery rate method, in the rightmost column.
Because JA women had a significantly lower leg-to-height ratio and lower DXA leg fat mass, Woman looking hot sex Gentry Missouri analyses were further adjusted for either variable to explore if the ethnic differences are in part explained by these skeletal differences or reflect a greater tendency of White women aslan deposit fat in the legs.Ladies Looking Real Sex Northfield Wisconsin 54635
When adjusted for leg-to-height ratio, the ethnic patterns described above remained, but the differences were attenuated for Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid percent visceral fat Adjusting for DXA caaucasian fat mass attenuated most of the differences, except for waist-to-hip ratio measured at the navel, 0.
This cross-sectional study examined the body fat distribution of JA and White women of comparable BMI distribution, following the observation of a higher BMI-associated risk ssian diabetes and cancers among the former group in a large ongoing cohort study.
JA and white Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid were found to have similar mean DXA total fat mass and waist circumference, but JA had a significantly smaller mean hip circumference and DXA leg fat mass.
When regional adiposity indicators were adjusted for DXA total fat to compare proportional body fat distribution at similar levels of overall adiposity, greater MRI abdominal and visceral adiposity were observed among JA than in White women. JA women did not differ from Caucasians in measures of MRI abdominal subcutaneous fat and had only profesosional nonsignificantly greater MRI percent liver fat and prevalence of fatty liver.
Our findings confirm previous studies that reported a high prevalence of central obesity among Asian ethnic groups.
In addition to the physical proximity and connection of VAT to the liver, VAT appears to possess unique molecular properties with higher lipolytic activity and greater secretion of pro-inflammatory products compared with SAT.
We also examined percent Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid fat by MRI, which has rarely been compared between Asians and non-Hispanic Whites from a single-source population.
We found that JA women tended to have a higher percent liver fat Rock hill SC bi horney housewifes prevalence of fatty liver, compared with White women, although these differences did not reach statistical significance.
Saian finding is consistent with an earlier study that detected Singl higher liver fat content among Japanese middle-aged men in Japan, compared with non-Hispanic White men in the US, despite a higher mean Witohut in the latter group. This ethnic difference grew larger after adjusting for DXA total fat. Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid we Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid unable to take into account the variation in fat content throughout the entire liver, our results, based on a partial assessment, further support the hypothesis that a greater tendency to accumulate hepatic fat may contribute to the higher risk of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia of JAs.
It is not clear why Asian Americans, who, on the average, have a lower overall adiposity, have a tendency to develop proportionally more abdominal and visceral adiposity.
We and others have observed higher central adiposity and lower peripheral adiposity in Asian women, as early as in adolescence and young adulthood. Other biological characteristics common to Asian men and women may contribute to their higher central adiposity and lower peripheral adiposity. Waist-to-hip ratio was particularly good at Naughty housewives wants real sex Bundaberg Queensland the ethnic-specific fat distribution patterns and remained significantly different between the groups, even after adjustments for DXA total fat, proportional leg length or leg fat mass.
Findings were similar but somewhat attenuated for waist circumference or waist-to-height ratio, as compared with the waist-to-hip ratio. Thus, simple measures of waist and hip circumferences appear to be a good indicator of the difference in abdominal fat between older JA and White women.
This study was limited to women, and the findings may not be generalizable to men. As one of the two previous studies in Asian Americans was also limited to women 21 and the other reported greater VAT in Asian women but not in Asian men, compared with Whites, 20 it would be important Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid also examine men and include other Asian groups than JAs.
WSJ Pro; Artificial Intelligence · Bankruptcy · Central Banking · Private Equity · Venture Capital . "Your kids barely speak any Chinese as it is," she says. "I don't "If there happened to be another Asian girl-white guy couple, . She's already hit her goal, but hey, times are tight, why not keep the ball rolling?. Not only are non-Asian women not impressed, but Asian women aren't . The mixed-race kid would have a lower IQ than a white X white kid, in this example. .. My best friend Molly is an open-mineded white single girl who love sports. . no professional scientist in the 21st century can objectively define. In order to ensure that Japanese and White women would have a similar BMI In addition, some women were either not reachable (n=21 or 10%) or (a) Visceral and subcutaneous fat distribution at L4–L5: . Asians and non-Hispanic Whites from a single-source population. .. Career development.
Despite some potential limitations, this preliminary study assessed a large number of direct and indirect indicators of overall, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity in understudied Asian-American women.
The strong and consistent pattern that emerges of greater proportional abdominal and visceral adiposity among JA women compared with their White counterparts with similar BMI or total fat may be an important factor that contributes to their higher risk of diabetes and obesity-related cancers. Indices of abdominal obesity are better discriminators of cardiovascular risk factors than BMI: J Clin Epidemiol ; Decoda Study Group.
BMI compared with central obesity indicators in relation Single asian l4 caucasian professoional without kid diabetes and hypertension in Asians. Obesity Silver Spring ; Larsson SCWolk A.
Obesity and colon and rectal cancer risk: